Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage
Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative stress from oxidative metabolism causes base damage, as well as strand breaks in DNA. Base damage is mostly indirect and caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated, e.g. O2− (superoxide radical), OH (hydroxyl radical) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). Furthermore, some reactive oxidative species act as cellular messengers in redox signaling. Thus, oxidative stress can cause disruptions in normal mechanisms of cellular signaling.
"Oxidative stress is an inescapable component of all aerobic life"
In a healthy aerobic organism, a balance between the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the system’s ability to protect cells from ROS exists. Ascendancy of the ROS production results in defects that may cause cell or organism damage or death. This imbalance is referred to as oxidative stress. The generation of ROS arises by many mechanisms in an organism even under normal physiological conditions. There are so-called endogenous cellular sources of ROS. The most important of these sources are electron transport chains of mitochondria and auto-oxidation of the key molecules of cellular function in animals, and chloroplasts as an alternative of mitochondria in plants.
ROS can also play a positive role in the organism especially in the phagocytic activity of neutrophils and macrophages. Upon stimulation, these cells increase O2 consumption up to 20 times resting levels which is referred to as “the respiratory burst” (think immune response). Processes which produce oxidative stress in aquatic organisms and mammals are similar. Many xenobiotics, such as pesticides, can induce the production of reactive oxygen species by several biochemical mechanisms such as the impairment of membrane-bound electron transport and subsequent accumulation of reduced intermediates, redox cycling, photosensitization, facilitation of Fenton reaction, inactivation of antioxidant enzymes and depletion of free radical scavengers.
Reactive Oxygen Species, Free Radicals and ultimately, Oxidative Stress, are all linked to (and in many cases considered as the primary cause of), a whole multitude of conditions, degenerative diseases, ailments, development, growth rates, yield potential, the aging process, and affecting virtually all life on earth. The pharmaceutical world has been trying for decades to find and develop an antioxidant that will address the need for the body (or system) to control the damaging effects of oxidative stress to address this known, proven and scientifically accepted fundamental of life.
With so many studies and research papers on the subject, along with the enormous scale and far reaching effects of Oxidative Stress, it has been difficult to find the one document that explains it all. We have therefore tried to post a few that gives the best overall explanation without being too specific to any single condition. We have heard that Oxidative Stress has been directly linked to around 225 disease conditions, and the best way to learn about a specific ailment is to “GOOGLE” search it with some specific words that include “oxidative stress”. At the bottom of this page is a collection of links that will allow you a far better understanding of the term, what it is, and how it effects every body, which includes animals, fish and plants. We intend to significantly increase the amount of studies on this website and try to categorize them as best we can to make it as easy as possible for you to find them. Primarily it appears that the core science is consistent and proven, and that is if we are able to neutralize the Hydroxyl Radicals and the Superoxide Radicals along with the reduction of inflammation throughout a biological system, significant positive change is possible, and the overall health of the entire system has a far greater chance of improving.
Oxidative stress may cause many issues throughout a body in many different ways, however, it is still oxidative stress that is the cause no matter where it manifests in the body first, second or third. As a body ages and the system develops more and more noticeable degenerative ailments, the vast majority can be directly linked to the first statement on this page, and that is;
The key is to be able to keep up and maintain the necessary balance in the first place. Science knows the primary sources of a great deal of issues a biological system faces, and that it needs to address these primary sources and functions as a fundamental step in maintaining a healthy system for all living things. Modern scientific methods and technologies suggest that the answers we seek have been found, but so much of it still comes back to OXIDATIVE STRESS & INFLAMMATION.
In recent years, the role of free radical reactions in human disease, biology, toxicology, and food deterioration has become an area of intense interest. The free radicals have a special affinity for lipids, proteins, and DNA. A free radical is an atom, molecule, or compound that is highly unstable because of its atomic or molecular structure (i.e., the distribution of electrons within the molecule). This instability makes free radicals very reactive, and they attempt to pair up with other molecules, atoms, or even individual electrons to create a stable compound. To achieve a more stable state, free radicals can “steal” a hydrogen atom from another molecule, bind to another molecule, or interact in various ways with other free radicals.
Free radicals can be defined as reactive chemical species having a single unpaired electron in an outer orbit and are continuously produced by the organism’s normal use of oxygen. This unstable configuration creates energy that is released upon reaction with adjacent molecules, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. The majority of free radicals that damage biological systems are derived from oxygen and more generally referred to as “reactive oxygen species.” Oxygen (O2) is an essential element for cell function and life. It plays an important role in a series of biochemical reactions occurring in the respiratory chain, which is responsible for most of the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which provides the energy required for a multitude of cellular reactions and functions. This process of respiratory chain takes place in membrane enclosed cell structures called mitochondria.
Neural cells suffer functional or sensory loss in neurodegenerative diseases. Apart from several other environmental or genetic factors, oxidative stress (OS) leading to free radical attack on neural cells contributes a calamitous role to neuro-degeneration. Though, oxygen is imperative for life, imbalanced metabolism and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation end into a range of disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, aging and many other neural disorders.
The toxicity of free radicals contributes to proteins and DNA injury, inflammation, tissue damage and subsequent cell death. Antioxidants are now being looked upon as a persuasive therapeutic against solemn neuronal loss, as they have a capability to combat by neutralizing free radicals.
Recognition of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapy to oxidative stress has been proved an effective tool in alteration of any neuronal damage as well as free radical scavenging. Antioxidants have a wide scope to sequester metal ions involved in neuronal plaque formation to prevent oxidative stress. In addition, antioxidant therapy is vital in scavenging free radicals and ROS preventing neuronal degeneration in post-oxidative stress scenarios.
Please click on the link below for the full study
Redox reactions are powerful chemical processes that involve the reduction and oxidation of proteins and metabolites found in living things. The mechanisms that regulate them are key to maintaining homeostasis and the balance between good health and disease pathology. Oxidative stress is the state where the delicate balance of redox biology is upset, and the pathology of oxidative stress are the cellular consequences to such an imbalance. In addition, our immune system has adapted the power of ROS/RNS for self-defence. ROS have a bactericidal effect on invading bacteria, and thus form a major component of our innate immune systems, though they can also contribute to and augment inflammation and immune disorders if left unchecked. Moreover, ROS/RNS are essential for various other biological functions, including cell survival, cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation.
Traditionally, oxidative stress research has focused on understanding how living cells handle the impact that ROS and RNS have on macromolecular homeostasis, and the traditional belief is that the pathology associated with oxidative stress is in direct response to ROS/RNS interactions. Diverse patho-physiologies are associated with ROS/RNS activity including diseases ranging from Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, to diabetes and sepsis. More recently, oxidative stress research has focused on the role of ROS/RNS in redox cell signalling, and how the disruption of normal redox signalling leads to a signalling dyshomeostasis and disease. The importance and complexity of research into redox biology and that of oxidative stress cannot be underestimated. The potential damage inflicted upon biological systems by ROS/RNS and oxidative stress has been implicated in contributing to numerous important diseases. Therefore, there is a pressing need to learn as much as we can about the factors that manifest, contribute, respond to, and control oxidative stress in living systems. As we learn more and more about the relationship that redox biology and ROS/RNS share in the chemistry of life, we have come to understand their importance not only in the fundamental enzymatic and energy metabolism of living things, but also in health, developmental biology, and aging.
The scientific community is a buzz with the recent discoveries and research into Oxidative Stress, its causes, its management and its effects on all living things. The science is now being applied to a huge range of interests with common, fundamental results being seen across a broad scope of life forms and species.
The collection of links listed here create a pretty compelling case for the future of general health for many species to be based. If you are unfamiliar with reading scientific information like this, please take your time and do your best to read the entirety of the information before moving on to the next subject. Each link builds on the information from the previous link, so please start at the top and work your way through.