Cancer

Oxidative Stress in Cancer and Fibrosis

Oxidative stress is defined as the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the capability of the cell to elicit an effective antioxidant response. While there are some positive roles regarding innate immunity and inflammatory signalling in the immune cells, most ROS are harmful to cells due to the accumulation of irreversible damages to proteins, lipids, and most importantly, to DNA leading to mutations and cell death. ROS and oxidative stress have been implicated in many diseases, including fibrosis and cancer.

In recent years, antioxidants have drawn much attention as potential therapeutic interventions due to their ability to fight oxidative stress (and thereby negate its role) in fibrosis and cancer development. The main function of antioxidants is to scavenge or neutralize free radical formation and to inhibit the deleterious downstream effects of ROS.

Please follow the link to read the study.

Oxidative Stress in Cancer and Fibrosis  

 

 Skin

Oxidative Stress & Ageing – The Influence on Skin

Ageing is marked by a progressive functional decline of an organism over time, which leads to increased susceptibility to age-related diseases, and eventually the death of an organism. Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structural integrity and physiological function. Intrinsic ageing is largely genetically determined whereas extrinsic ageing is related to the cumulative effects of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and environmental pollution.

There have been a large number of studies examining the involvement of mitochondria in the ageing process. The primary function of mitochondria is the production of cellular energy and oxygen metabolism in the mitochondria, leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The formation of ROS is a natural consequence of oxygen metabolism and ROS have integral physiological roles in cell signalling and oxygen homeostasis. Mitochondria are considered to be the predominant source of intracellular ROS and are believed to contribute 90% of the ROS generated within the cell.

Antioxidants are produced to counteract oxidative stress generated by excess ROS; however, in times of environmental stress, elevated ROS levels can overwhelm endogenous cellular antioxidant mechanisms. This can lead to an imbalance in tissue oxygen homeostasis, with oxidant effects outweighing antioxidant effects, and as a consequence the cellular environment becomes oxidatively stressed. Oxidation of lipids by ROS can damage cellular structures and result in premature cell death. There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress induced by ROS is a major contributing factor to the ageing process.

Mitochondrial DNA is located in close proximity to the site of ROS production, making it highly vulnerable to oxidative damage. Mitochondrial dysfunction is heavily implicated in the ageing process and the pathogenesis of age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In AD it is believed that the accumulation of amyloid beta peptide interacts with mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. The resulting aberrant mitochondrial function leads to increased oxidative stress, neuronal damage and cognitive decline.

Please follow the link to read the study.

  Oxidative Stress & Ageing - The influence on skin